Sunday, January 19, 2020

Real education outside the class Essay

â€Å"Learning cannot be simply equated to a mark, grad, degree or job. It is a life-long process.† Getting a good education and qualification is just a key to enter society, and it does not ensure success in one’s life. To be successful, one must experience the real world outside the boundaries of a school environment, as one’s schooling day are just a small chapter in one’s life. I believe that one can learn more in the real world and society, than in the comforts of a school. However, it is essential that everyone in the world attends at least a few years of formal education in schools. Being literate is important to both the individual and society —– as it ensures that the individual is well prepared to face challenges in their future, particularly in their careers. Education for its citizens also makes industrialisation and growth possible for a country. In schools, teachers help to impact knowledge and skills to students, ensuring that they have foundation in languages, and basic skills in mathematics and science. Teachers also emphasize life values, like honesty and respect, which are valued to be important for one to be successful in the future. Moreover, people will only learn the realities of life when they join the workforce in society. This is because schools are sheltered environments, as students are repeatedly given a second chance when they commit an offence like theft in school. Furthermore, students are given opportunities in schools to experiment in various examinations and projects. However, this is not the case in a real working environment; most employers do not give their employees a second chance when they commit a minor error in their work. In schools, people are taught life values, whilst in a working environment, people have to practice these values in their daily lives in order to survive in the world today. The world outside the school environment is much bigger and more diverse than the school environment. Reading history books and travel guides on various countries worldwide is insufficient to learn more about different cultures and religions. One will certainly learn more about the history and cultures of different people around the world if he is given an opportunity to travel and experience li fe in another country and culture. Furthermore, he could even learn to appreciate and respect others’ lifestyles, and hopefully, also learn to respect and feel proud of his own culture and history. He can also be motivated to gain more knowledge and be more proactive when he sees a more developed city than his own, and learn to  help the less fortunate and not to take things for granted when he visits a country suffering from poverty. People can gain more valuable lessons from challenges in the unpredictable world. In a classroom scenario, tasks and events are usually based on routine and hence are more predictable. Students are hence spared from changes, particularly from world events and problems faced by many working adults. Students can readily read about such problems from various mass media like newspapers and the Internet. However, most students do not understand the extent of such problems faced by their parents or around the world, even though they are well aware of it. This is because they have not experience these problems in their lives. One example is the worrying trend in the world that many youths today are spending money excessively. These youths will only learn to appreciate the efforts of their parents more when they start their careers and realise the hardships of work and society. Learning is a life-long process, and things learnt in schools are just a small part of what we learn in our entire lives. For one to be successful and be able to survive in the harsh world today, one has to be proactive to learn new skills and gain new knowledge through experiences in every single day we lead. Knowledge and skills learnt in schools usually get outdated within a few years, due to the nature of today’s world —– which is fast-paced, competitive and ever-changing. By continuing to learn throughout one’s life, he will be more matured, independent and more confident in handling future changes and challenges. Schools are the places where people begin their learning journeys and these journeys will only end at the last day of our lives. Schools are just a microcosm of the real world, as the real world is bigger and more diverse. Matthew Swift Watching a sporting event on television can be enjoyable, but actually seeing it live, surrounded by cheering fans, provides a much more encompassing experience. While the television provides the viewer a visual play-by-play of what each team or athlete is doing, actually sitting in the stands gives the fan the real experience that images can’t replicate. On many levels, the same can be said for learning. A student can read about the Italian Renaissance or watch a video about the ocean, but it does not have the same impact as seeing the sculptures and paintings in Italy or enjoying the marvels at an aquarium. This can hold especially true when it comes to  learning and experiencing science. Most schools don’t have the equipment or means available to show students what can be accomplished using science. And, in recent years, interest has waned in the topic as more students decide to pursue careers in other fields. Therefore, field trips might help spark an interest in science and possibly inspire students to pursue a deeper knowledge of the subject. â€Å"I think that before students start laboratory-based learning in science, they are greatly excited by it. However, this excitement all too often pales. Students complain that the classroom science lessons lack ‘relevance’,† says Michael Reiss, a science education professor at the Institute of Education at the University of London. â€Å"I feel this criticism should be taken seriously. Out-of-school activities can be very motivating for students.† In 2004, Reiss and Martin Braund, an honorary fellow at the University of York and an adjunct professor in Cape Town, South Africa, published a book about the importance of out-of-school learning called Learning Outside the Classroom. Research from the book was later published in the International Journal of Science in 2006, which highlights several arguments on why science classes should go on meaningful field trips. â€Å"One of the things we’re trying to do is to promote field work as a way of getting [students] interested,† says Braund, who notes that students are generally more interested in animal li fe than plant life. He suggests taking students to a botanical garden where they can be exposed to unique plant life and engage with the various scientists who work in this field. â€Å"It’s not just a question of knowing what it is they are interested in†¦ as science teachers, we also want them to know all the other things. It’s promoting an interest in these things and using the outdoor environment. That is important to us.† The research Braund and Reiss conducted concludes that it is highly important to take students on field trips and promote informal learning, out-of-classroom work, and learning at home, in order for students to fully grasp what is happening in modern science. The pair looked at research from around the world to draw these conclusions. They recommend taking students to botanical gardens, science museums, zoos, and places where they can get hands-on experience and see how science interacts with many other fields that students might have an interest in. â€Å"Field trips are remembered by students for a very long time,† said Reiss. â€Å"They can provide instances of learning and be motivating in  ways th at school-based learning rarely can.† â€Å"Science education really seems to be rooted in the 19th century version of science, which is more concerned with lab work and work in the classroom,† Braund says. â€Å"We wanted to promote field work as an example†¦ that there are more opportunities for mathematics, science, and technology to come together.† In the United Kingdom, field trips and out-of-the-classroom work has been embraced and the Manifesto for Learning Outside Classroom partnership is widely supported. The partnership and its website offer ideas, resources, and research to educators to help make these trips safe and educational for students. If the trips are organized properly, then the partnership says students can â€Å"improve academic achievement, develop skills and independence in a widening range of environments, and nurture creativity,† among other benefits. This partnership is just one of many organizations, educators, and government officials that push for field trips and other similar activities. â€Å"I am glad to say that in the U.K. the last four years have seen a real effort by the national government to see more learning outside the classroom,† said Reiss. â€Å"It is too early to be sure how sustainable this is but such an attitude is to be welcomed.† â€Å"There’s been a rea l push to try and increase the amount of field work,† Braund says of recent progress. â€Å"Not just in science subjects, but outdoor learning related to history, geography, mathematics, English, all subjects in the curriculum.† While there is substantial support for outside learning experiences, Braund and Reiss are still waiting to see the results. They feel that despite the push, some schools are not taking advantage of field work. Braund said the manifesto was created to encourage schools to go out more, but the economy, safety issues, and classroom constraints have hampered this. â€Å"When you take a class out on a biology field trip, that class is probably not just missing the biology time, it’s missing geography, math, or something else,† offered Braund as an example. â€Å"Those other teachers then begin to say, ‘Hey, wait a minute. It’s all very well you’re taking your pupils out to these situations, but they’re actually missing essential learning time in my subjects and that’s going to affect my exam results, on which I am judged’.† â€Å"For one thing, there is increasing pressure on schools to maximize student attainment in examinati ons. Yet such examinations often do not reward learning in out-of-school settings,† added Reiss. â€Å"A second reason is that there is a perception—and often it is a  perception rather than a reality—that today’s stricter health and safety considerations mean that it’s all too bureaucratic taking students out of the classroom.† Many educators instead take their students on â€Å"virtual† field trips, which may include using interactive technology, watching videos, or using computer programs as a means to take students out of the classroom. These have their benefits, but Reiss and Braund agree that they cannot take the place of the real thing. â€Å"Virtual field trips can be a great preparation for and follow up to a field trip, for example for learning about the organisms that might be seen, were seen (or were not!), but they can’t replace a real field trip,† says Reiss. â€Å"I always think [virtual field trips] are the second best,† says Braund. He adds that sometimes the only way schools have access is through a virtual trip, which can prove very educational for students. â€Å"It’s better to do the real thing, but we realize some schools can’t’. †¦ I just think there are lots of things that happen on field work, almost incidentally, that you can never replicate on a virtual trip, website, DVD, whatever it might be.† Learning Outside the Classroom (LOtC) is the use of places other than the classroom for teaching and learning. It is about getting children and young people out and about, providing them with challenging, exciting and different experiences to help them learn. Learning outside the classroom can happen at almost any time and almost anywhere The ‘places’ where learning happens can have a significant effect on how a young person engages with a subject or an idea. Learning outside the classroom can happen at almost any time and almost anywhere – outdoors or indoors: in the school grounds, on the high street, in the local park, in museums and art galleries, on mountain tops and rivers, in Britain’s remote places, or elsewhere in the world. As an essential way of learning it should not be restricted to the summer or as an ‘add-on’ after examinations. Learning outside the classroom should be built into planning forall learners, every week and all year round. It is a powerful tool that is proven to raise attainment, bolster social, emotional and personal development and contributes to the health and well being of children and young people. What comes to mind when you think of education? School buildings? Lib raries? Textbooks? Curricula? Teachers? Most of us probably  associate education with at least one of these things, and surely many more could be added. But does education take place outside of such formal settings? Can curricula be found beyond that of the normal course of study? And can teachers be found who are teaching outside of the classroom? If we simply consider the amount of time students spend outside of class the answer to these questions would surely be a resounding â€Å"Yes!† And if we add the strong probability that many of the hours spent outside the class are consumed by various media, for example, we can see another strong reason to answer in the affirmative. Students are virtually suffocated with ideas when they leave the confines of the school building. For many their education has just begun when the last bell rings each day. In fact, many students use whatever mental energy they have to learn only those things that interest them outside of school. Educational Sources: Parents What are some of the sources from which students learn? Let’s begin with parents. After years of ministry among youth I am convinced that students want to learn from their parents. In fact, some are desperate for their parents’ wisdom. Thankfully, I have seen the wonderful effects of respect between parents and children. The children are taught the most important truths of life in the home and those truths are accepted because there is a large measure of respect for the parents. Such an atmosphere is patiently developed through the parents’ concentrated, time-consuming dedication to their children. And I hasten to add that I have observed this in single parent as well as blended families. The result is that children who are raised in such a home will usually compare what they are taught outside the home with what they are taught in the home. And the lessons they learn from parents outweigh other lessons. Unfortunately, though, this situation is much too rare. Man y students, including those raised in Christian homes, are left alone to discover what they can without the guidance of parents. When we realize that â€Å"true, meaningful communication between parent and child †¦ occupies only about two minutes each day†(1) there should be reason for concern. That amounts to slightly more that 12 hours per year. If that is compared to the amount of time spent in school, for example, what the parents teach in that brief time can be overwhelmed with contrary ideas. Students spend much more time learning at school per week than they do with  parents per year! This situation should be seriously considered by Christians when evaluating the current educational climate. If Christian parents are not willing to educate their children there may not be much room for complaining about what is learned outside the home. Children have always needed parental guidance and they always will. One of the most important directives for the ancient Jews applies to parental responsibility for the education of their children. Deuteronomy 6:4-7, the revered Shema, states that â€Å"(5) You shall love the LORD your God will all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might. (6) And these words, which I am commanding you today, shall be on your heart; (7) and you shall teach them diligently to your sons and shall talk of them when you sit in your house and when you walk by the way and when you lie down and when you rise up.† This strategic passage was reemphasized by the Lord Jesus (Mark 12:28-30). What a student learns outside of class should begin at home. Educational Sources: What is Heard, Read, and Seen Where and by whom is a student educated outside the school and home? Actually the question should use both past and present tenses. Since we are concentrating on education outside the classroom, it’s important to realize that students are constantly being educated, whether they are aware of it or not. Education does not just apply to some type of formal education; it is very much a part of daily life. The Christian student who is attempting to think God’s thoughts after Him is profoundly aware of this. He lives in a world of ideas, and ideas have consequences. Those ideas are so much a part of life that it’s as if they’re a portion of the air we breathe. Students should be conscious of this, but the same is true for all of us. All of us are students. So where do we find the teachers? There are at least three other sources: what is heard, what is read, and what is seen. First, what is heard? One morning as I went to the front yard to get the newspaper I hea rd a loud, repetitive noise that sounded as if it were a woodpecker hammering on metal. When I located the source I realized to my amazement that indeed it was a woodpecker pecking on a metal light covering near our house. My curiosity was aroused so I pursued an answer to my crazy woodpecker question. It turns out that the bird could have heard his prey inside the covering, but couldn’t distinguish for the moment the difference between  wood and metal. The point of this illustration is that the wondrous nature of nature had provided a teachable moment. God’s creation abounds with such opportunities to observe the variety He has given us. And such moments are part of our daily lives. But most students hear from more obvious sources: peers, radio, television, movies, music, etc. These sources provide a profusion of ideas. They are teachers. And just as in the formal classroom, the student should be listening carefully to see if the lessons should be considered, discarded, or believed. The second source focuses on what is read. Some studies indicate that people are not reading any longer. This is curious in light of the growth of enormous bookstores filled with many obscure and weighty titles. Be that as it may, the printed word still has an impact. Most students give some attention to reading. Words still have meaning, in spite of the efforts of those who would use words to say that words are meaningless. This is especially true for the Christian student. If he doesn’t revere the Bible to the point of reading and understanding it as the foundation of his education, he is like a ship without a rudder. The ship is afloat but it’s at the mercy of the sea and its currents. The last of our sources concerns what we see. Since a large percentage of students spend an enormous amount of time viewing television, movies, magazines, and other media, this is a major educational element. Images abound in their lives. This challenges the Christian student to be especially alert to the multitude of ideas that come through her eyes and into her mind. Educators beyond the classroom are continually vying for the minds of students. Let’s do what we can to lead our studen ts through this maze of ideas. The Curriculum One of the major elements of a formal education is the curriculum. This curriculum is usually set for students in the primary grades, it contains some flexibility in middle school, more flexibility in high school, and significant flexibility in college. Regardless of the educational level a student attains, his formal education includes variety. The same is true outside the classroom. The education he receives there includes a varied curriculum. And that curriculum can be found in varied places, from conversations with those with whom he works, to his magazine subscriptions, to the movies he rents. Let’s consider several ideas that generally are  found in the educational curriculum outside the classroom. Man is the Measure of All Things First, man is the measure of all things. That is, man is the focus of what is taught. This course is called naturalism. God either doesn’t exist, or He may as well not exist because He has nothing to say to us that has meaning. Thus man is left alone to create meaning, value, morality, religion, government, education, and all other aspects of life. This is probably the most influential way of thinking in this country. Think, for example, of the television programs you may have seen lately. Now consider whether or not those programs included the presence and guidance of a deity, whether the God of the Bible or not. With rare exceptions, the education one receives through such sources doesn’t include any concept of God. Instead, man deals with all problems in his own way, through his own ingenuity. Of course the student usually isn’t able to see the long term results of such decisions. As wonderful as the resolution may appear at the end of a program, the ultimate consequences may be disastrous. Pleasure is the Highest Good The second portion of the curriculum is based upon the idea that pleasure is the highest good. This course is called hedonism. Perhaps one of the more obvious places to find this is in your local grocery store. The â€Å"textbooks† that are found in the magazine rack near the checkout island contain this message in abundance. The articles, advertisements, and pictures emphasize the supremacy of pleasure above virtues such as self-control and sacrifice. Take a moment sometime just to scan the articles and emphases that are highlighted on the front covers of these magazines. For example, the contents of a recent teen-oriented publication for girls include: â€Å"Look Hot Tonight,† â€Å"Stud Shopping Tips,† â€Å"Love Stories: Secrets of Girls Who Snagged Their Crush,† â€Å"Hunky Holidays: Meet the 50 Most Beautiful Guys in the World,† and â€Å"The Ultimate Party Guide.† All these titles revolve around the idea that pleasure is the highest go od. True Spirituality Has Many Sources Third, true spirituality has many sources. This course is called syncretism. Current spiritual emphases have led many students to believe that it doesn’t matter what path you take as long as you are on a path. A trip to a large  book store will demonstrate this. For example, you can find many books that contain many ideas about angels, but most of them have nothing to do with biblical doctrine. Or you can find a section dedicated to an assortment of metaphysical teachings, none of which align with biblical teaching. When confronted with such variety the student can be tempted to believe that true spirituality can be found in many places. The Christian student must realize this isn’t possible if his allegiance is to Christ as Lord of all. What Works is Good The fourth idea is that what works is good. This course is called pragmatism. This is a particularly attractive part of the curriculum for Americans. And this certainly includes the American Christian student. But it’s a deceptively attractive course. It may lead to results, but at what cost? I think of a revealing scene in the disturbing Academy Award- winning movie A Clockwork Orange. A young British hoodlum in a futuristic England is programmed to abhor the violence that he continually practiced with his gang. This abhorrence is brought about by forcing him to watch scenes of horrible violence while his eyes are forced open. When he is brought before an audience to demonstrate the change, his programmer tempts him with several opportunities to do violence while the audience watches. He resists the temptations. After the demonstration a clergyman protests by saying that the â€Å"boy has no moral choice.† He was manipulated. The programmer scoffs at this claim and states that the result of the experiment is good because â€Å"the point is that it works.† â€Å"It has relieved the ghastly congestion in our prisons.† These first four parts of the curriculum are naively optimistic. They describe either present or future existence positively because of supreme confidence in man and his abilities. Other portions of the curriculum are not so optimistic. In fact, they can be frighteningly pessimistic at times. There is No Meaning A fifth aspect of the curriculum denies meaning. This course is called existentialism, and sometimes nihilism. The â€Å"big† questions of life are asked, but no answers are found. Then the response is either total denial of hope, which should logically lead to suicide, or living by simply acting in the face of absurdity. These perspectives can be found, for example, in some  contemporary music and movies. The songs of Nine Inch Nails, the moniker for a musician named Trent Reznor, sometimes contain ideas that are indicative of this. The movies of Woody Allen often contain characters and scenes that depict a search for meaning with no conclusions other than individual acts. There is No Truth The last portion of the curriculum is closely connected to what we have just discussed. This course can be called postmodernism. We are living in a culture that increasingly denies an encompassing paradigm for truth. This can be demonstrated by considering what Francis Schaeffer meant by the phrase â€Å"true truth.† That is, there is no â€Å"big picture† to be seen and understood. We only have individuals and communities who have their own â€Å"little truths.† And nothing connects those truths to something bigger than themselves and more lasting than what might work at the moment. This can be heard, seen, and read incessantly. There are too few teachers in the culture’s curriculum who are sharing ideas that are connected to or guided by â€Å"true truth.† The ultimate outcome of such thinking can be devastating. Chaos can reign. Then a sense of desperation can prompt us to accept the â€Å"truth† of whoever may claim to be able to lead us out of the confusion. Germany experienced this under the reign of Hitler. We should not be so smug as to think it could not happen to us. Responding to the Curriculum Man is the measure of all things! Pleasure is the highest good! True spirituality has many sources! What works is good! There is no meaning! There is no truth! These are the ideas that permeate the education a student receives outside the classroom. How can a Christian deal with such a curriculum? Some suggestions are in order. First, the student should be encouraged to understand that God is the measure of all things, not man. God is an eternal being who is the guide for our lives, both temporal and eternal. Thus we don’t first ask what man thinks, we ask what God thinks. So this means that the student must decide on his primary textbook. Is it the Bible, or some other text? Second, the student should be led to realize that God’s will is the highest good, not pleasure. This is very important for the contemporary Christian to understand in light of the sensuous nature of our culture. A student easily can get the idea that God is a â€Å"kill joy† because  it ma y seem that everyone is having a good time, but he can’t because of God’s restrictions. If he can understand that God’s ideas lead to true freedom and joy, the student can more readily deal with this part of the curriculum. Third, the student should be challenged to realize that true spirituality is found only through a relationship with the risen Jesus. Jesus lives in us through the indwelling of His Spirit. And this indwelling is only true for the reborn Christian. Yes, there are many spiritual concepts alive in this culture. Many people are searching for something that will give meaning beyond man’s ideas. There is a spiritual hunger. But if we try to relieve that hunger through ideas that come from man’s perceptions of spirituality, we are back where we started: man is the measure of all things. Fourth, the student should be taught that what works is not always good. Satan can make evil work for a time, but he is the father of lies, and lies lead to spiritual and moral decay. Fifth, the student should be led to believe that life has meaning. The Christian can see the world around him with the eye of hope because God is in control. As chaotic as things may appear, there is a purpose, there is a plan. People have meaning, past events have meaning, present events have meaning, and future events will have meaning. Christ has died to give us salvation, and He has risen from the dead to give us hope for the present and the future. A student whose mind is infused with meaning will be able to handle the despair around him, and he can share his secure hope in the midst of such despair. Sixth, the student should be guided to think in terms of the big picture. Imagine a puzzle with thousands of pieces. Now think of attempting to assemble the puzzle without having seen the picture on the box top. That would surely be a frustrating experience. You would have individual pieces but no guide to fit the pieces together. Many attempt to live this way. But the Christian student has the box top. He can begin to put the puzzle of life together with God’s picture in mind. So, does education take place beyond the classroom? C ertainly! May God guide us to help students learn the proper lessons. Notes 1. J. Kerby Anderson, Signs of Warning, Signs of Hope (Chicago: Moody, 1994), p. 136.  © 1996 Probe Ministries International

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski: Bio-bibliography Essay

A British anthropologist born in Krakow, Poland, Bronislaw Kasper Malinowsky left his mark in anthropological studies around the world. Throughout his career, Bronislaw dedicated his time to developing methods that dominated preceding anthropological fieldwork. Malinowski is most famously known for founding Social Anthropology and the idea of functionalism. (See Notable Names Data Base, The) Bronislaw Malinowski was born April 7, 1884 to mother, Jozefa, and father, Lucjan Malinowski. Lucian was a professor of Slavic philology at Jagellonian University in Southern Poland. Bronislaw’s mother, born Jozefa Kacka, married Lucjan at the age of 35 in 1883. Although she did not hold any place in the academic world, like her husband, she was part of a family that owned land and held a certain high-ranking status in society. (See Notable Names Data Base, The – Bronislaw Malinowski and Wayne, Helena pg.529) When Bronislaw was 14 years old his father died of a heart attack at the a ge of 58 leaving him under his mother’s care. â€Å". The family had been living on Cracow University grounds, but widow and son had to leave this home and thereafter lived in various flats in central Cracow. They were always rather hard up. A professor’s pension was not very generous: there was, however, some family money.† (See Wayne, Helena pg. 530) As a child, Malinowski attended Krakow’s King John Sobieski public school. He went by the nickname, Bronio. His mother’s side of the family being more maternal than his father’s side, Malinowski spent a lot of time with the Kacka cousins. Throughout his years at the public school, and later on during his college career, Malinowski always had a very gangly body structure and often was sickly looking. Due to poor health, Malinowski frequently had to take time off from school to slow down and not get worse. Malinowski had incredibly bad eyesight and it progressively got worse to the point where he was threatened with blindness. (See Wayne, Helena pg. 530 and Notable Names Data Base, The – Bronislaw Malinowski) While attending Jagellonian University, during one of his health breaks, Bronislaw Malinowski came across the work of a British Anthropologist, Sir James Frazer (2). Frazer’s work, The Golden Bough, sparked Malinowski’s interest in primitive peoples and about human cultures and society (1). Malinowski’s original focus at the college was mathematics and physics. He later decided to broaden his education by studying philosophy and psychology. After receiving his PhD in Philosophy, Physics, and Mathematics in 1908, Malinowski went on to study physical chemistry at Leipzig University in Germany. Then finally, ended his academic studies at the London School of Economics. This is where he received his DSc in 1913 and also earned his PhD in Science in 1913. (S ee Notable Names Data Base, The – Sir James Frazer, Bronislaw Malinowski) After college, Malinowsky traveled to New Guinea, Australia, and Melanesia. Where he began his early field expeditions and began his well-known work on the Trobriand Islanders. Malinowsky studied their marriages, trade, and their religious practices. Malinowski found it just as important to observe the people he was studying during their everyday lives as opposed to simply asking the different cultures questions. Malinowski had the idea that people, while under a study, have the tendency to lie in order to give the examiner what they want to hear. It was by observing cultures going about their lives as usual that Malinowski discovered that many previous discoveries made by other anthropologists, such as Lewis Henry Morgan and Sir James Frazer, were very incorrect. These other anthropologists committed a proverbial crime, known today sweeping generalizations. Malinowski discovered that in order to obtain factual and accurate data on other cultures, an anthropologists couldn’t rightfully assume that because one or two cultures have the same characteristic then a similar culture will also hold that same characteristic. This finding also disproved Sigmund Freud’s Oedipal Complex theory. Malinowski’s practice with extended fieldwork changed the game of anthropology forever. (See Notable Names Data Base, The – Bronislaw Malinowski) With Malinowski’s new approach to fieldwork study, he discovered that these â€Å"savage† cultures were actually more civilized than they had been given credit for in the past. â€Å"For example, tribal marriage and religious practices, no matter how strange or exotic, revealed themselves to be an integral part of the healthy functioning of the community, playing vital roles in trade, community cohesion, and social stability.† (See Notable Names Data Base, The – Bronislaw Malinowski) Along with his groundbreaking discoveries in fieldwork methods, Malinowski better known for his introduction to the idea of functionalism. Functionalism is â€Å"a theory stressing the importance of interdependence among all behavior patterns and institutions within a social system to its long-term survival.† In other words, people in a society require the social structure in order to function as an individual. (See Free Dictionary – Functionalism) Malinowski’s idea of functionalism was branched from Radcliffe Brown’s, another British anthropologist, similar idea called structural functionalism. â€Å"Malinowski meanwhile placed greater emphasis on the actions of the individual: how the individual’s needs were served by society’s institutions, customary practices and beliefs, and how the psychology of those individuals might lead them to generate change.† (See Notable Names Data Base, The – Bronislaw Malinowski) Malinowski marri ed twice. His first marriage was to Elsie Rosaline Masson in 1919. Together they had three children, all girls. Eslie passed away in 1935 after a long illness . Five year later, he married for a second and final time to Anna Valetta Hayman-Joyce, a painter, in 1940. Malinowski did not have any more children. Despite being in ill health in 1940, Malinowski continued to do field work. He had begun a new study; â€Å"a study of marketing among the Zapotec of Oaxaca.† Mid-study, Malinowsky died of a heart attack, just as his father had, on May 16 1942 leaving behind his successful contribution to anthropology. (See Encyclopedia – Bronislaw Malinowski) In today’s American society, we are taught that every race and culture is equal. Bronislaw Malinowski taught us this by pointing out cultures’ same differences. For example, one culture may turn to magic or sacrificial practices to overcome evil while an American culture might pray to a higher, unknown power. These may seem like two different extremes but they are equally a practice of religion to help cope with uncontrollable forces of the universe. I found it very werwinteresting that, although this may seem like common sense to people today, there was one person who was able to destroy sweeping generalizations and the idea of a â€Å"savage† culture. With over fifty successful pieces of work, and seventeen published books, Malinowski had four books that were his best known: Argonauts of the Western Pacific (1922), Crime and Custom in Savage Society (1926), The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia (1929), and finally, published after his death, Magic, Science, and Religion and Other Essays (1948). (See Notable Names Data Base, The – Bronislaw Malinowski)

Friday, January 3, 2020

Burgess, Melinda, and Sandra Burpo. The Effect of Music...

Burgess, Melinda, and Sandra Burpo. The Effect of Music Videos on College Students Perceptions of Rape. College Student Journal 46.4 (2012): Academic Search Complete. Web. 27 Feb. 2014. Basically, the article is divided into three parts. The first part grouped evidence from several studies about the widespread of women’s portrayal as degraded sex objects in music videos of most types. Then the second part discuss the experiment which was done to examine whether if there was a relationship between these music videos and the way college students think about date rape. Finally, the third part discusses and finalizes the end results. Males were less likely to†¦show more content†¦N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2014. This article examined the present study highlights self-objectification as a previously unexamined variable that may be involved in the female response to media stimuli. The central purpose of the study was to examine whether viewing thin-idealized medi a images would increase state self-objectification, negative affect and body dissatisfaction in young women. Then the article discussed the experiment done, which compared the effect of intensive exposure of thin models magazines and magazines advertising products without people. Also, the author presented comprehensive description of how those effects, self-objectification, appearance anxiety, negative mood and body dissatisfaction, were measured. In the last part, the author showed the results, which showed that the group which was exposed to the thin-idealized models scored much higher number in all the previously-stated measures compared to the group which was exposed to products’ images. When it comes to the author, she is a psychology professor at Flinders University and she is well known by her publications related to body image and media’s effects. The article was well written with flexible and easy style to be understood by the reader. Furthermore, there was a comprehensive explanation of the conceptions used in the experiment, which made it very clear and easier to understand the analysis of the experiment’s results. The source is

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Understanding Taxation Of Returns On Property Holdings Essay

Understanding taxation of returns on property holdings is necessary before entering and investing in Australian market. A comprehensive study of the government regulations and the existing tax structure will help individuals and corporate in making informed choice about investing in the precarious housing market. Australia, officially the commonwealth of Australia is a country comprising six states, namely, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia. To govern these states, the federal system is divided into three broad categories which are Federal government, state government and local government. The Federal government has the power to make the laws for all Australian Territories. Specific areas of legislative power are given to the federal government which includes taxation, defense, foreign affairs and postal and telecommunications services. The state government is permitted to pass laws related to any matter that is not controlled by the Commonwealth under Section 51 of the Australian Constitution . Some of the key responsibilities handled by the state government are -Agriculture, Education, Electricity and gas supply, health, housing, public transportation and law and order. Local government also known as local councils, handle community needs like waste collection, public recreational facilities and town planning. The State government oversees the work and responsibility of the local government and decides whatShow MoreRelatedNozicks Argument Against Redistributive Taxation1621 Words   |  7 Pagesof the owner of the holdings. He mentions here that the only State that is justified in carrying out any duties is the ‘minimal state.’ The minimal State is one that is only limited to the enforcement of of contracts and protection of individuals, etc. Any more intervention from the State, according to Nozick, is a violation of right against the people. The purpose of this essay is to examine Nozick’s argument against redistributive taxation to prove that eliminating taxation means getting rid ofRead MoreTaxation and the High Net Worth Individual1214 Words   |  5 Pagesstrategies in order to address the risk in their portfolios or to e arn extra income (like in a covered write). Typically, the wealth of a high net worth individual is not entirely locked up in the investment portfolio either there can be things like art, property, or businesses that form part of the individuals total net worth. As well, more exotic instruments might be utilized as well, for example emerging market debt, foreign sovereign debt, exchange traded funds, commodities and currencies, futures andRead MoreHow Income And Its Impact On Financial Reporting1046 Words   |  5 Pagestopic Effectively managing a company is exclusively important for executives to understand both U.S general accepted accounting principles (GAAP) that govern financial reporting and tax implications of transactions. Corporations with a better understanding of Internal Revenue Code are able to deduct their tax expenses to the government, which will result in more cash to pursue profitable business opportunities. Since the GAAP and IRC differ from each other in objectives, many differences exist betweenRead MoreTX2 exam7040 Words   |  29 PagesCGA-CANADA ADVANCED PERSONAL CORPORATE TAXATION [TX2] EXAMINATION June 2009 Marks Time: 4 Hours Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 20 This examination is based on the Canadian Income Tax Act (ITA) and its Regulations consolidated to July 2008. To clarify your answers, you may reference them to the applicable provisions of the ITA and its Regulations (except for Question 1, which is a multiple-choice question). Round all calculations to the nearest dollar. All calculations must be shown inRead MoreEssay Summary : Why Give Your Estate Property?1739 Words   |  7 PagesWhy give Your Estate Property? Obviously, most Americans dont have a substantial estate portfolio. However, a lot of them can enjoy huge budgetary advantage and as well give a beneficent advantage to the public. One of the favorable circumstances to the giver is that the amount of the duty deduction is dictated by the present market estimation of the property, rather than the cost of the property when it was bought (Moreover, by giving a property as an alternative to offering it for sale, a donorRead MoreChapter 1 Introduction to Federal Taxation and Understanding the Federal Tax Law1861 Words   |  8 Pages543 Chapter 1 Introduction to Federal Taxation and Understanding the Federal Tax Law TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS—CHAPTER 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. The majority of dollars collected by the U.S. government come by way of corporate taxation. Prior to the Sixteenth Amendment direct taxes were illegal. All U.S. taxes are based on an individual’s income. Customs taxes are imposed on exports toRead MoreIncome Taxation Solutions Manual 1 300300 Words   |  1202 Pagesas a small business corporation and a subsequent sale of shares would be entitled to the Buckwold and Kitunen, Canadian Income Taxation, 2012-2013 Ed. Solutions Manual Page C-1 Copyright  © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. capital gain deduction of $750,000. Although Court will be subject to further taxation when dividends are paid to him from the corporation, double taxation will not occur to the extent that income consists of business income below $500,000 annually or investment income. This resultsRead More Locke On Distribution Essay3207 Words   |  13 Pageson who you talk to), widely debated, or caused more controversy than the old Oxford gradÕs theory of property. Some are shouting from the left that Locke argues a rights claim for subsistence for all individuals, that it may even support MarxÕs theory of exploitation. Yelling back are those from the right who claim that he formulates a moral justification for capitalist appropriation of property. Then of course there are those somewhere in between who are telling everyone to shut up because LockeRead MoreTransfer Pricing20501 Words   |  83 Pagestax law its sources 3. Brief history of International Tax Law 4. Who gets the pie? 5. Arm s length principle : Cornerstone of International Tax Law 6. Transfer pricing methods 7. Problems with of source taxation of MNE s 8. Internet e-commerce : Achilles heel of current International taxation regime? 9. Formulary Apportionment (FA) 10. Existing uses of Formulary Apportionment systems in the world 11. Developing countries Formulary Apportionment 12. Critique of Formulary Apportionment 13. TransferRead MoreTexas Cpa Exams Requirements2814 Words   |  12 PagesEngagement Acceptance and Understanding the Assignment (12% - 16%). * For example, the topics include determine nature and scope of engagement, consider the firm’s policies and procedures pertaining to client acceptance and continuance, establish an understanding with the client and document the understanding through an engagement letter, and identify matters related to planning and prepare documentation for communications with those charged with governance. * Understanding the Entity and Its

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

The Need For Sleep - 1190 Words

The need for sleep is one of the strongest biological urges we have. One of the few that we really can’t control. And the fact is, we can die faster from sleep deprivation than food deprivation. Even though the average person will sleep for 25 years of their lives, there is no scientific consensus as to why exactly we do it. One thing we know for sure is that our brains definitely think that sleep is important. Deep in the hypothalamus, the tiny nut sized region at the base of the brain, there is a little cluster of cells that act like a timer called, the supra-chiasmatic nucleus. When we are exposed to light, this little cluster busily releases awake hormones like cortisol, and suppresses the release of sleepy hormones like melatonin. When it’s dark, it does the opposite. A second trigger for sleep is believed to be the build up of the compound adenosine in the brain. Adenosine is a by product of the neutrons and other cells when they burn up adenosine triphosphate, th e main molecule that our bodies use to store energy. Research suggests that when a bunch of left over adenosine accumulates in the brain we get sleepy. Caffeine works by bonding to the same receptors as adenosine and tricking the body into thinking it’s not tired. But when we do sleep, those adenosine levels drop as it’s gradually reabsorbed by the neurons. This is why we feel rested when we wake up for the most part. Although there are a lot of theories out there of why we sleep, there isn’t one singleShow MoreRelatedDo We Need Sleep?1051 Words   |  5 Pagesthe brain during sleep? Nerve-signaling chemicals called neurotransmitters, control whether we are asleep or awake by acting on different groups of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain. Neurons in the brainstem, which connects the brain with the spinal cord, produce neurotransmitters such as serotonin and norepinephrine that keep some parts of the brain active while we are awake ( /disorders/brain_basics/understanding_sleep.htm). So why do we need sleep? Sleep is important toRead MoreEssay on Who Needs Sleep?1546 Words   |  7 PagesIn the United States 40% of car accidents are linked to lack of sleep (Souza). Sleep deprivation is a serious problem; people do not seem to care about or pay attention too. Everyone needs sleep; it is the mind and body’s natural way of restoring itself from a day’s work. There are four stages of sleep and according to The Better Sleep Council the first stage is when the mind is relaxing, and the eyes close. It is easy to wake someone during this stage, and people often feel like they are fallingRead MoreWhy We Need Sleep1376 Words   |  6 PagesWe Need Sleep Sleep is a very important aspect of our lives and people rely on it to re-energize them so they can continue onto the next day. Although sleep is thought to conserve energy it actually drains your metabolism by 5-10%. However, sleep is very beneficial to humans. Sleeping progresses the bodies’ growth and rejuvenates the immune, skeletal, nervous and muscular systems. Sleep also improves short-term memory, mood, efficiency, concentration, and it is actually believed that sleep alsoRead MoreDo Teens Need Sleep?1450 Words   |  6 Pages Teens Need Sleep â€Å"For better teen health, push the snooze button on school start times† (Ornes). There are many risks connected to starting school too early that go from health risks to far more things. Even though changing school start times may be costly schools should start later because moving back start times would increase academic performance, lessen health problems , and reduce safety risks. The average start time of schools is 8:03 A.M (Wheaton, Ferro, and Croft 810). 8:03Read MoreStudent Sleep : Adjusting And Their Needs2175 Words   |  9 PagesStudent Sleep: Adjusting to Their Needs No teenager enjoys awakening to the sound of a noisy and annoying alarm clock. Rising from bed at five or six a.m. with heavy eyes and stumbling to the shower is no way to start the school day, especially when having worked on homework until 11 or 12 p.m. Half asleep, high school students pour their cereal, eating and thinking like zombies. Even as they make it out the door, the sun is still down and the sky is still dark. Thankfully, once the studentsRead MoreThe Human Body And Body Needs Sleep835 Words   |  4 PagesTo Sleep. Everyone knows the human body needs sleep. For some people, sleep is what they enjoy most, but why do human beings need sleep? Why is the urge to collapse into the warm safety of our beds so tempting? Why are we so grumpy when we don’t get enough sleep? Sleeping isn’t only relaxing but it is also helpful to your brain and body. â€Å"We have to sleep because it is essential to maintaining normal levels of cognitive skills such as speech, memory, innovative and flexible thinking. Sleep alsoRead MoreWhy Do We Need Sleep?1713 Words   |  7 PagesWhy Do We Need Sleep? Typed By: Miracle Taylor Regulating sleep is something our bodies do that is as natural as eating, drinking, and breathing. This implies that sleeping serves a similar role in our health and well being. Even though it is difficult to answer the question â€Å"Why do we need sleep?† scientists have developed several theories that may explain why we spend a third of our lives sleeping. Comprehending these theories can help expand our appreciation of the functionRead MoreSleep Disorders : Needs Assessment And Rationale1367 Words   |  6 PagesNeeds Assessment and Rationale While there are several sleep disorders that can cause an individual to experience the effects of insufficient sleep, insomnia is one of the more common culprits. It is characterized by consistent troubles falling and staying asleep, as well as untimely early rising and an overall sense of subpar sleep quality. These night time symptoms consequently translate to excessive daytime fatigue, a reduced ability to focus and functional impairment (Stanford Medicine, 2011)Read MoreStudents Are Not Getting The Proper Sleep They Need1272 Words   |  6 PagesStudents are not getting the proper sleep they need. School start times around the nation begin at around eight in the morning. If students need to balance a large load of after school activities, these early start times may be difficult for some to adjust on. The patterns of teenager’s lives keep them up anyway and make them need to sleep later into the morning. Therefore, High schools need to start at least 30 minutes later in t he day to help students, schools and society. If schools started thirtyRead MoreWhat Is Sleep And Why Do You Need It? Essay1041 Words   |  5 Pages12-6-16 P2 What is sleep and why do you need it? People have many different theories of why we need it but if we don’t sleep how can it hurt us. Many people can be affected by different amounts of sleep. So how can you get better sleep or even just less without feeling the effects or tiredness. So how can sleep really affect your mood? Sleep has been linked to many different theories of why we sleep. One of the first ever Theron s the inactivity theory, this describes sleep as protection from

Monday, December 9, 2019

Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage †

Question: Discuss about the Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage. Answer: Introduction Toyota is a multinational company in Japan, they are known as one of the largest manufacturers in automobile sector who sells over 7.5 million models in continents. Toyota has created distinctive set of values and principles that have been rooted in constructive years in japan. Toyota in Australia being a subsidiary markets various Toyota products and advertise them manages business operations and motorsports in Australia. They have announced that they have become a national distribution and sales company by the end of 2017. Their strength and weakness lies in the strong market positioning and their wide spread distribution channels on the other hand their product recalling affected brand image also the poor allocation of resources lead to few losses. . The competitive advantage of Toyota in home country as well as Australia is been discussed here under and how they operate in Australia. This company is in the mature stage of its industry life cycle (Anon, 2017). Toyotas operations in Japan Toyota is one of the renowned industry leader in manufacturing. Their operating system is an integrated socio-technical, they manufacture and organize logistics for automobile manufacturers which include suppliers and customers. Their approach is built on Just-in-time production which was created by the founder of Toyota. This approach helps to eliminate waste and design in a way that it lessens the burden and the inconsistency to achieve the smooth system of delivering the expected outcomes. Just-in-time explains everything clearly that company should make what is needed at the time and the fixed amount which is needed at that moment only. An another operating system of Toyota is Jidoka and it is used in Toyota production system to automate but with a human touch, it simply means an automation which require human to operate but work is done in automation (Toyota Australia, 2017). The automation help rapid detection of any mistake and their correction in the particular process where it occurred and in this way it ease the process of the workers need to judge the operation whether it works normal. Sometimes one has to wait for the final product and it is not sure that product will come out as expected there are always the chances of occurrence of defective products. Automation help them to detect any defect at an earlier stage only (Kumar et al., 2013). Toyota operates in Australia in a different way as compare to its home country. It has become the largest vehicle exporter who is shipping more than to 13 markets overseas. Toyota has been more simplified and got a manageable environment in Australia which has reduced the requirement of remote support. The operation system in Australia has given the company a flexibility to respond in market and enable them to achieve profits by reducing costs through various planned activities for longer term plans. As Australia is about customer-oriented mind set so the approach of just-in-time does not work here exactly the same it does in Japan. It has transformed its operating system from heterogeneous to consolidated one. One of the benefit they get in Australias operating system is their cost of service has been substantially reduced in order to improve the cost of ownership. The customers in Australia are about the design of cars rather than its functions, they are after customization in this way the improvisation and modernization has been made in end-user experience which ultimately lead to another level of success in operations in Australia. It also provides seeks to improve their processes. They form manufacturing strategies effectively in regard to design flexible and efficient processes that allow them to standardize their products keeping in mind the customers requirements (Rothaermel, 2016). Competitive advantage in Japan In spite of poor resources in Japan, Japanese companies have managed to use scarce resources in a way and adapt successfully in the global competition including geographical factors which affects the success of a company at both national and corporate level. Toyotas philosophy is about continuous improvement in their operation processes and adopt VRIO framework where this organization has acquired attributes and combinations of different attributes which will allow Toyota to perform the best from its competitors (Hines, 2016). VRIO framework helps in determining the competitive potential, values, rarity which enables the company to improve its overall efficiency by organizing its planning for the usage of resources. The competitive advantage of Toyota consists the characteristics of detecting problem at earlier stages and solving them by making continuous improvements (Laszlo, 2017). In Japan they have adopted radical redesign of their business processes, provide time to time employe e training so that quality can be maintained and keep them updated about the latest technologies. The success is mainly depend upon how the processes work in the alignment of particular objectives, Toyota has implemented few efficient strategies and invented Just-in-time approach, inventory strategy by synchronizing their processes towards lean production which make sure it eliminates waste produced in varied areas of production. There objectives are clear saying automation would require less human effort, just-in-time require less amount of time to deliver products by reducing the in-process stock or inventory and it shows high responsiveness towards customers (Hatch, 2015). Competitive advantage in Australia Toyotas competitive advantage in Australia is innovation, the key to survive in market for a long term prosperity. The hi-tech and innovative products are the factors which would help a company to survive and grow (, 2017). They develop the leading-edge technologies to innovate and make lighter material or customize as per consumers requirement. It can be said that it is more about customer centric strategy that they adopted because Australia has got high level of education and their research and development base are their strength which can be utilized in ways to enhance the functionalities of products to compete with other automobile companies. The continuous improvisation in their product lines gives them an advantage of highly efficient production and attract brand positioning in market. Their strategy is to chase new markets in order to spread all over to survive for long they have got ample of natural resources and added to the fact the innovation allow them to use w isely the natural resources which tends to make lighter material (Barney, 2014). References Anon, (2017). [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2017]. Barney, J.B., 2014. Gaining and sustaining competitive advantage. Pearson Higher Ed. (2017). Toyota Australia Transforms End User Computing With Fujitsu - Fujitsu Global. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2017]. Hatch, N.W. and Howland, C., 2015, January. When Does Competitive Advantage Improve Customer Welfare?. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2015, No. 1, p. 18091). Academy of Management. Hines, P., 2016. Toyota supplier system in Japan and the UK. In Developments in Logistics and Supply Chain Management (pp. 113-124). Palgrave Macmillan UK. Kumar, V., Jones, E., Venkatesan, R. and Leone, R.P., 2013, May. Is market orientation a source of sustainable competitive advantage or simply the cost of competing?. American Marketing Association. Laszlo, C. and Zhexembayeva, N., 2017. Embedded sustainability: The next big competitive advantage. Routledge. Rothaermel, F.T., 2016. Competitive Advantage in Technology Intensive Industries. In Technological Innovation: Generating Economic Results (pp. 233-256). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Technology, M. (2017). Manufacturing Innovation: Lessons from the Japanese Auto Industry. [online] MIT Sloan Management Review. Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2017]. Toyota Australia. (2017). Toyota Production System. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2017].

Monday, December 2, 2019

To Homer by John Keats free essay sample

Within the Mythological Criticism approach, Keats illustrates the use of different archetypes, including the archetype character; example of this is illustrated in the verse So thou wast blind! – but then the veil was rent, we can infer that the author wants to make certain allusion to the Greek Poet Homer, who was blind and was known in his time as a figure of reality and legend, author of the Great Epics The Iliad and The Odyssey. (VIII century BC). On the other hand, Keats mentions various gods of Greek Mythology, example we have: For Jove (Zeus Jupiter) uncurtained Heaven to let thee live,; And Neptune made for thee a spumy tent, and â€Å"And Pan made sing for thee his forest-hive†; these three lines the author may want to express the kindness and protection that Homer should have them on Earth, Heaven and the Sea and the fear of unconsciousness. These are examples of the different Mythic Archetypes in the Poem. We will write a custom essay sample on To Homer by John Keats or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In addition, we can infer that the author refers to a situational archetype To visit dolphin-coral in deep seas, as an allusion to the beauty of the deep sea and the golden fish, popularly called the dolphin. Within the poem is also identified a symbolic archetype darkness / light, this archetype describes symbolic polarity between life and death Aye, on the shores of darkness there is light. The poem can be considered as an apostrophe devoted to the absence and disappearance of the poet Homer, we can also qualify it as a praise or prayer to Homer, who was one of the leading poets in the history of Greek Mythology